Feed Technology News

New world record for wheat yield

ABC rural reports that the record, weighing in at 16.79 tones to the hectare, was grown near Ashburton in New Zealand, and has been certified by Guinness World Records. The record setting figure is eight times higher than the average Australian wheat yield.The wheat was an English variety called Oakley, and was grown on silty clay soil with a water holding capacity of 180mm. The crops were irrigated twice, and only received 285 kg of applied nitrogen, which Mr Watson said was 'quite low'. So what happens to the wheat? “Well, it doesn't face a particularly special future,” according to Mr Watson. "It's just gone into a big heap in the shed with my feed wheat."

Reference: All about feed

De Heus opens aquaculture research center in Vietnam

Production by the Vietnamese aquaculture sector is on target to reach 4.7 million metric tons by 2030, according to Nguyen Huu Dung, chairman of the Vietnam Seaculture Association (VSA).Speaking at an event in Ho Chi Minh City recently, Dung said the export earnings from the industry could be as much as US$30 billion to US$35 billion by that time, reports VietnamNet. The potential and present challenges of the Vietnamese aquaculture sector have been recognized by Netherlands-based feed company, De Heus, which has just opened a new fish research center in the Mekong Delta area. According to Vietnam Briefing, VSA puts the value of this trade at US$12 billion to US$13 billion by 2020. The sector is moving toward the production of more value-added products, supported by recent government support for a project to achieve this and investment from state and foreign sources. Between 2010 and 2016, marine fish aquaculture in Vietnam increased from 15,700 metric tons (mt) to 28,300 mt, largely due to the opportunities offered by the country’s 3,000-kilometer coastline. Among the challenges faced by the sector are the small scale of many aquaculture businesses, inefficient supply chains and a lack of technology.

Reference: wattagnet

4 ways NIR can support precision nutrition

With feed costs accounting for up to 80% of the total variable costs of animal production, precision nutrition is becoming increasingly more important as a way to stay competitive in the poultry industry. Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) can be used by nutritionists to meet the specific nutritional requirements of the animal and achieve optimal protein production.NIR can also support the feedstuff procurement process and feed quality control through quick assessment of the quality of incoming feedstuffs and outgoing finished feed. NIR technology uses near infra-red light to analyse an ingredient or feed sample to predict its nutritional value. Precision nutrition programmes using NIR technology allow the nutritional value of feed and ingredient samples to be determined in a quick and simple manner generating actionable information to help poultry producers minimise economic losses and improve profitability. Advancements in NIR are likely to bring industry-wide changes to the way in which feedstuff procurements and feed formulations are approached - we outline below 4 key ways that NIR technology can be used to support precision nutrition in the poultry industry. Variability in raw materials brings challenges – and NIR can be used to understand this to help ensure animals receive adequate nutrition Driven by nutrient variability of key raw materials, poultry feed manufacturers will continue to focus on tools and technology to assess variation. For example, while the average crude protein of soybean meal might be 47%, there may be a range of 46.00-48.00% within a set of samples. Rapid sample analysis by NIR allows nutritionists to better understand the variation in raw materials, enabling them to change their diet formulation, adjust ingredient safety margins and monitor feed mill efficiency by correlating formulated diets to the actual diet nutrient value – minimising over and under formulating diets and ensuring the animals receive adequate nutrition. Advancements in NIR are enabling it to be used beyond traditional proximate analysis, providing greater insight into the nutritional value of feed Phytate, present in all plant-based feedstuffs, reduces digestibility and utilisation of important nutrients in the diet. The levels of phytate is raw materials varies, and NIR technology can be used to measure these levels. Understanding the phytate level can help nutritionists to optimise their phytase dosage without risking performance losses or welfare problems. Advances in NIR technology can be used to predict the AME of cereals, including corn, which has been shown to vary by as much as 360 kcal/kg. NIR can help nutritionists better understand their corn variation, to optimise diet formulation and monitor incoming corn from suppliers. Heat damage during processing of protein meals can also be monitored using NIR. As lysine is heat-processed, it loses its nutritional value through the formation of Maillard products. Reactive lysine, lysine that has not undergone the Mailard reaction, can be measured by NIR as an indicator of heat damage; with reactive lysine content being reduced with over-processing. Whilst it is not currently possible to formulate to reactive lysine requirements, it is certainly a tool that could be used for supplier selection. Seeing the full data picture One of the benefits of NIR is the ability to measure a large number of samples, enabling you to develop a large database of results upon which more informed and accurate decisions can be based. Beyond having confidence in the results, the value of having a large database of raw material quality, or feed analysis, can be transferred into real – life applications such as trending and benchmarking or segregation of incoming raw materials as well as supplier selection. New developments in Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) technology are unlocking greater insights for the feed industry, which should mean improved returns for producers Latest NIR technology software and hardware developments can help nutritionists better understand their feed ingredients. Emerging technologies such as centrally maintained on-line calibrations, pay-as-you-use calibrations, portable NIR and affordable in-line NIR installations are making NIR technology more accessible across the entire feed industry enabling you to extract the full potential of NIR.

Reference: AllAboutFeed

Less toxic cottonseed: Potential for non-ruminants

Cottonseed can be used for ruminant diets, but non-ruminants are too sensitive for the toxic substance gossypol, a nasty by-product of the cotton plant. Luckily, US researchers have developed a gossypol-free variety of cottonseed.otton production is one of the largest production crops around the world. The plant is used for fibre for the textile industry, but the ‘by-product’ is the cottonseed. For every 1 kg of cotton fibre, the plant produces around 1.65 kg of seed. Cottonseed consists of 21% oil and relatively high-quality protein (23%). But the cotton plant also has another – less wanted – by-product: gossypol. This is a secondary metabolite and serves as a defence compound for the plant due do its bitter taste. Gossypol toxicity Cottonseeds are often used as a feed ingredient, due to its favourable protein content, but what about the gossypol content? Monogastric animals, such as pigs, birds, fish, and rodents, are more susceptible to gossypol toxicity than ruminants. Adult ruminant animals are able to tolerate a limited amount of gossypol in their diets because gossypol is bound during ruminal fermentation and becomes unavailable for intestinal absorption. Therefore, cottonseed is currently used mainly as feed for ruminant animals as either whole seed or cottonseed meal after oil extraction (gossypol is chemically and physically removed from the oil and refined oil has an important role in human nutrition). However, even adult cattle can suffer from gossypol toxicity above a certain amount of cottonseed intake. Young animals, without fully developed rumen, are more sensitive to gossypol compared to the adult ruminants. Elimination of gossypol The cottonseed has potential to use in many other livestock species (other than ruminants). If gossypol could be eliminated from the cottonseed, then cotton-producing countries with limited supply of feed protein can derive greater benefits by utilising the seed-derived protein as a feed for poultry, swine or aquaculture species. The elimination from the cottonseed has been a long-standing goal of geneticists and cottonseed processors. The “glandless mutant cotton” cultivated by Native Americans in the Hopi region of Arizona and discovered by breeders in the 1950s was free of glands and, therefore, gossypol-free. This sounds great, but unfortunately, these glandless cotton varieties suffered more severe pest damage from traditional and also non-traditional cotton pests and had lower yields under field conditions. Use of biotechnology tools In the 90s, biotechnology tools were able to identify the first gene that encodes an important enzyme involved at a critical step in gossypol biosynthetic pathway of the gossypol. In addition, another important component, a DNA sequence that can be used to control seed-specific expression or silencing of a given gene was also isolated from cotton and characterised. In the late 90s, the biological community came to understand a natural biological phenomenon known as RNA interference (RNAi) that can also be used to silence a desired gene in an eukaryotic organism. A team at Texas A&M University used a combination of these three tools and technologies to engineer a cotton plant that resulted in the reduction of gossypol from ~10,000 ppm to about 250 ppm in the seed (the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization guidelines permit up to 600 ppm free gossypol in edible cottonseed products). Field test for Ultra-low Gossypol Cottonseed The Ultra-low Gossypol Cottonseed (ULGCS), developed by the US researchers has been further tested in the field as feed ingredient for non-ruminants. Especially, egg and broiler production could become the most efficient use of any available feed protein source, including the ULGCS. For example, a country like India, the biggest cotton producer is also experiencing increasing consumption of eggs and poultry. But also for fish diets, the use application of ULGCS shows promise as fishmeal replacement. This has been recently demonstrated in the diets of shrimp and juvenile Southern flounder by Richardson et al., 2016 and Alam et al., unpublished. Texas A&M University is planning additional aquaculture and poultry feeding studies to fully evaluate the nutritional value of ULGCS.

Reference: Feedipedia.org

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